Gh Th Dh Sh
غ ث ذ ش
r Paris in French three mother sh
a i u '
ـَ ـِ ـُ ء
but bit put a
Ş ş Đ đ Ţ ţ q
ص ض ط ق
bus dull tumble car
Ā ā Ī ī Ū ū
ـَا ـِي ـُو ى
bad beat fruit the
` Say a-a-a-ah and try to raise the lower part of your throat in order to narrow the passage through which the air is expelled.
Ĥ ĥ Produced by expelling the air through a narrowed throat in much the same way as when one tries to clear one's throat.
Start with the th sound in mother, then raise your tongue as much possible to produce the .
kh The sound of ch in Scottish loch, but rougher.